United States History

Articles Of Confederation

1781 – 1788

To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates
of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.
Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New
Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

The Stile of this Confederacy shall be
“The United States of America”.
Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction,
and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress
The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their
common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding
themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any
of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.
The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the
different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds,
and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens
in the several States; and the people of each State shall free ingress and regress to and from
any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the
same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that
such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any
State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition,
duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of
If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any
State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of
the Governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed
to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.
Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings
of the courts and magistrates of every other State.
To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates
of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.
Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New
Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
For the most convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates
shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures of each State shall direct, to meet
in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each
State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in
their stead for the remainder of the year.
No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and
no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six
years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United
States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any
Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as
members of the committee of the States.
In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one
Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or
place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from
arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendence on Congress,
except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy
to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or
treaty with any King, Prince or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust
under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office or title of any
kind whatever from any King, Prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress
assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.
No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between
them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the
purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.
No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties,
entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance
of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.
No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as
shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such
State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except
such number only, as in the judgement of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be
deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such State; but every State
shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered,
and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of
filed pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.
No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled,
unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of
a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so
imminent as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted;
nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque
or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled,
and then only against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof, against which war
has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in
Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may
be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United
States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.
When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the
rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such
forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be
filled up by the State which first made the appointment.
All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general
welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a
common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all
land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and
improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress
assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.
The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of
the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress
The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of
determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article — of sending
and receiving ambassadors — entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of
commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained
from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected
to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities
whatsoever — of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall
be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United
States shall be divided or appropriated — of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of
peace — appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies commited on the high seas and
establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided
that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.
The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes
and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning
boundary, jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which authority shall always be exercised
in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent
of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress stating the matter
in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the
legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the
appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint
consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in
question: but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United
States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners
beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than
seven, nor more than nine names as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be
drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be
commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major
part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party
shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall
judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate
three persons out of each State, and the secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party
absent or refusing; and the judgement and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner
before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit
to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless
proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgement, which shall in like manner be final and
decisive, the judgement or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to
Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided
that every commissioner, before he sits in judgement, shall take an oath to be administered
by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State, where the cause shall be
tried, ‘well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his
judgement, without favor, affection or hope of reward’: provided also, that no State shall be deprived
of territory for the benefit of the United States.
All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or
more States, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed
such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to
have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party
to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner
as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different
The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power
of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective
States — fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States — regulating
the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided
that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated —
establishing or regulating post offices from one State to another, throughout all the United
States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to
defray the expenses of the said office — appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service
of the United States, excepting regimental officers — appointing all the officers of the naval
forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States — making
rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their
The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in
the recess of Congress, to be denominated ‘A Committee of the States’, and to consist of one
delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be
necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States under their direction — to appoint
one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office
of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of
money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same
for defraying the public expenses — to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United
States, transmitting every half-year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so
borrowed or emitted — to build and equip a navy — to agree upon the number of land forces,
and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants
in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each
State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a
solid-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so cloathed,
armed and equipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the
United States in Congress assembled. But if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on
consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise
a smaller number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered,
cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of each State, unless the legislature
of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in
which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they
judeg can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall
march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress
The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque
or reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor
regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defense and
welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of
the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be
built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in
chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any
other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of the majority
of the United States in Congress assembled.
The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and
to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration
than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except
such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgement require
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered
on the journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their
request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above
excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several States.
The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess
of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the
consent of the nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided
that no power be delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of
Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled be requisite.

Canada acceding to this confederation, and adjoining in the measures of the United States, shall
be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be
admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.
All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of
Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation,
shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction
whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.
Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all
questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation
shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall
any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to
in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every
And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures
we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the
said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates,
by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in
the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each
and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the
matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of
our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in
Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said Confederation are submitted to them.
And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent,
and that the Union shall be perpetual.
In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia
in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord
One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the
independence of America.

Agreed to by Congress 15 November 1777 In force after ratification by Maryland, 1
March 1781.

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776

Action of Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America
WHEN in the Course of human Events,
it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have
connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the
separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle
them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare
the causes which impel them to the Separation.
WE hold these Truths to be self- hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they evident, that all Men are created equal, that they
are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are
Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness — Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness — That to secure these Rights, Govern- That to secure these Rights, Governments
are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the
Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these
Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government,
laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such
Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Pru- heir Safety and Happiness.
dence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed
for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind
are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves
by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of
Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce
them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off
such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has
been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which
constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present
King of Great- Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having
in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To
prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the
public Good.
HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance,
unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and
when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of
People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the
Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.
HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and
distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing
them into Compliance with his Measures.
HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly
Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.
HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be
elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of the Annihilation, have returned
to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean
time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and the Convulsions
HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose
obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage
their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations
of Lands.
HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws
for establishing Judiciary Powers.
HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices,
and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.
HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers
to harass our People, and eat out their Substance.
HEhas kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent
of our Legislatures.
HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil
HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution,
and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended
FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us;
FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which
they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:
FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:
FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:
FORabolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing
therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to
render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute
Rules into these Colonies:
FORtaking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering
fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
FORsuspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with
Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.
HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and
waging War against us.
HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed
the Lives of our People.
HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat
the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances
of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and
totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.
HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear
Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and
Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to
bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merc Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian iless Indian Savages, Savages, Savages, whose
known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and
IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most
humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury.
A Prince, A Prince, A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant,
is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.
NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British British Brethren. British Brethren. We have Brethren.
warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable
Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded warrantable Jurisdiction over us them of the Circumstances of of the Circumstances of
our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appeale our Emigration and Settlement here. d to their native Justice and
Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to
disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and
Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity.
We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our
Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of M and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enem ankind, Enemies in War, in ies in War, in
Peace, Friends. Peace, Friends.
in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the preme Judge of the
World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in t World he Name, and by Authority of
the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these
United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT
STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that
all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought
to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they
have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce,
and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may
of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the
Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our
Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

Treaty of Peace & Friendship Treaty of Peace & Friendship
Between Morocco and The United States Between Morocco and The United States

To all persons to whom these presents shall come or be made knownWHEREAS
the United States of America in Congress assembled by their
Commission bearing date the twelfth day of May One Thousand, SevenHundred
and Eighty-Four thought proper to constitute John Adams, Benjamin
Franklin and Thomas Jefferson their Ministers Plenipotentiary,
giving to them or a Majority of them full powers to confer, treat & negotiate
with the Ambassador, Minister or Commissioner of His Majesty the
Emperor of Morocco concerning a Treaty of Amity and Commerce, to
make & receive propositions for such Treaty and to conclude and sign
the same, transmitting to the United States in Congress assembled for
their final Ratification.

And by one other commission bearing date the Eleventh day of March
One-Thousand Seven-hundred & Eighty-five did further empower the said
Ministers Plenipotentiary or a majority of them, by writing under the
hands and Seals to appoint such agent in the said business as they might
think proper with authority under the directions and instruction of the
said Ministers to commence & prosecute the said Negotiations & Conferences
for the said Treaty provided that the said Treaty should be signed
by Ministers: And Whereas, We the said John Adams & Thomas Jefferson
two of the said Ministers Plenipotentiary (the said Benjamin Franklin being
absent) by writing under the Hand and Seal of the said John Adams at
London, October fifth, One-thousand Seven-hundred and Eighty-five, &
of the said Thomas Jefferson at Paris October the Eleventh of the same
year, did appoint Thomas Barclay, Agent in the business aforesaid, giving
him the Powers therein, which by the said second commission we were authorized
go give, and the said Thomas Barclay in pursuance thereof, bath
arranged Articles for a Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the
United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco &
sealed with His Royal Seal, being translated into the language of said
United States of America, together with the Attestations thereto annexed
are in the following words, To Wit:
In the name of Almighty God.

This is a Treaty of Peace and Friendship established between us and
the United States of America, which is confirmed, and which we have ordered
to be written in the Book and sealed with our Royal Seal at our
Court of Morocco in the Twenty-Fifth day of the blessed month of Sha-
ban, in the year One-Thousand Two-hundred, trusting in God it will remain

We declare that both Parties have agreed that this Treaty consisting of twenty five Articles shall be inserted
in this Book and delivered to the Honorable Thomas Barclay, the Agent of the United States now
at our Court, with whose Approbation it has been made and who is duly authorized on their part, to treat
with us concerning all the matters contained therein.
If either of the parties shall be at war with any nation whatever, the other party shall not take a commission
from the enemy nor fight under their colors.
If either of the parties shall be at war with any nation whatever and take a prize belonging to that nation,
and there shall be found on board subjects or effects belonging to either of the parties, the subjects shall be
set at liberty and the effect returned to the owners. And if any goods belonging to any nation, with whom
either the parties shall be at war, shall be loaded on vessels belonging to the other party, they shall pass free
and unmolested without any attempt being made to take or detain them.
A signal or pass shall be given to all vessels belonging to both parties, by which they are to be known when
they meet at sea, and if the commander of a ship of war of either party shall have other ships under his
convoy, the Declaration of the commander shall alone be sufficient to exempt any of them from examination.

If either of the parties shall be at war, and shall meet a vessel at sea, belonging to the other, it is agreed that
if an examination is to be made, it shall be done by sending a boat with two or three men only, and if any
gun shall be bread and injury done without reason, the offending party shall make good all damages.
If any Moor shall bring citizens of the United States or their effects to His Majesty, the citizens shall immediately
be set at liberty and the effects restored, and in like manner, if any Moor not a subject of the dominions
shall make prize of any of the citizens of America or their effects and bring them into any of the
ports of His Majesty, they shall be immediately released, as they will be considered as under His Majesty’s
If any vessel of either party shall put into a port of the other and have occasion for provisions or other supplies,
they shall be furnished without any interruption or molestation.
If any vessel of the United States shall meet with a disaster at sea and put into one of our ports to repairs,
she shall be at liberty to land and reload her cargo, without paying any duty whatever.
If any Vessel of the Untied States shall be cast on Shore on any Part of our Coasts, she shall remain at the
disposition of the Owners and no one shall attempt going near her without their Approbation, as she is
then considered particularly under our Protection; and if any Vessel of the United States shall be forced to
put in to our Ports, by Stress of weather or otherwise, she shall not be compelled to land her Cargo, but
shall remain in tranquility until the Commander shall think proper to proceed on his Voyage.

If any Vessel of either of the Parties shall have an engagement with a Vessel belonging to any of the Christian
Powers within gunshot of the Forts of the other, the Vessel so engaged shall be defended and protected
as much as possible until she is in safety; and if any American Vessel shall be cast on shore on the
Coast of Wadnoon or any Coast thereabout, the People to her shall be protected, and assisted until by
the help of God, they shall be sent to their Country.
If we shall be at War with any Christian Power and any of our Vessels sail from the Ports of the United
States, no Vessel belonging to the enemy shall follow until twenty four hours after the Departure of our
Vessels; and the same Regulation shall be observed towards the American Vessels sailing from our Ports—
be the enemies Moors or Christians.
If any ship of war belonging to the United States shall put into any of our ports, she shall not be examined
on any pretense whatever, even though she should have fugitive slaves on board, nor shall the governor or
commander of the place compel them to be brought on shore on any pretext, nor require any payment
for them.

If a ship of war of either party shall put into a port of the other and salute, it shall be returned from the
fort with an equal number of guns, not with more or less.

The commerce with the United States shall be on the same footing as is the commerce with Spain, or as
that with the most favored nation for the time being; and their citizens shall be respected and esteemed,
and have full liberty to pass and repass our country and seaports whenever they please, without interruption.

Merchants of both countries shall employ only such interpreters, and such other persons to assist them in
their business, as they shall think proper. No commander of a vessel shall transport his cargo on board
another vessel; he shall not be detained in port longer than he may think proper; and all persons employed
in loading or unloading goods, or in any labor whatever, shall be paid at the customary rates, not
more and not less.
In case of a war between the parties, the prisoners are not to be made slaves, but to be exchanged one for
another, captain for captain, officer for officer, and one private man for another; and if there shall prove a
deficiency on either side, it shall be made up by the payment of one hundred Mexican dollars for each
person wanting. And it is agreed that all prisoners shall be exchanged in twelve months from the time of
their being taken, and that this exchange may be effected by a merchant or any other person authorized of
by either of the parties.
Merchants shall not be compelled to buy or sell any kind of goods but such as they shall think proper;
and may buy and sell all sorts of merchandize but such as are prohibited to the other Christian nations.
All goods shall be weighed and examined before they are sent on board , and to avoid all detention of
vessels, no examination shall afterwards be made, unless it shall first be proved that contraband goods
have been sent on board, in which case, the persons who took the contraband goods on board, shall be
punished according to the usage and custom of the country, and no other person whatever shall be injured,
nor shall the ship or cargo incur any penalty or damage whatever.

No vessel shall be detained import on any pretense whatever, nor be obliged to take on board on any articles
without the consent of the commander, who shall be at full liberty to agree for the freight of any goods
he takes on board.
If any of the citizens of the Untied States, or any persons under their protection, shall have any disputes
with each other, the consul shall decide between the parties, and whenever the consul shall require any aid
or assistance from our government, to enforce his decisions, it shall be immediately granted to him.
If any citizen of the Untied States should kill or wound a Moor, or, on the contrary, if a Moor shall kill or
wound a citizen of the United States, the law of the country shall take place, and equal justice shall be rendered,
the consul assisting at the trial; and if any delinquent shall make his escape, the consul shall not be
answerable for him in any manner whatever.
If an American citizen shall die in our country, and no will shall appear, the consul shall take possession of
hi affects; and if there shall be no consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands of some person worthy
of trust, until the party shall appear, who has right to demand them; but if the heir to the person deceased
be present, the property shall be delivered to him without interruptions; and if a will shall appear,
the property shall descend agreeable to that will as soon as the consul shall declare the validity thereof.
The consuls of the United States of America, shall reside in any port of our dominions that they shall
think proper; and they shall be respected, and enjoy all the privileges which the consuls of any other nation
enjoy; and if any of the citizens of the United States shall contract any debts or engagements, the consul
shall not be in any manner accountable for them, unless he shall have given a promise in writing for the
payment or fulfilling thereof, without which promise in writing, no application to him for any redress shall
be made.
If any differences shall arise by either party infringing on any of the articles of this treaty, peace and harmony
shall remain notwwithstanding, in the fullest force, until a friendly application shall be made for an
arrangement, and until that application shall be rejected, no appeal shall be made to arms. And if a war
shall break out between the parties nine months shall be granted to all the subjects of both parties, to dispose
of their effects and retire with their property. And it is further declared, that whatever indulgences, in
trade or otherwise, shall be granted to any of the Christian Powers, the citizens of the United States shall
be equally entitled to them.
This treaty shall continue in full force, with the help of God, for fifty years. We delivered this book into
the hands of the before mentioned Thomas Barclay, on the first day of the blessed month of Ramadan, in
the year one thousand two hundred.
I certify that the annexed is a true copy of the translation made by Isaac Cardoza Nunez, interpreter at
Morocco, of the treaty between the Emperor of Morocco and the United States of America.

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2 Thoughts to “United States History”

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